Council of Europe adopts first international treaty on AI: human rights, democracy and rule of law

The Council of Europe’s Framework Convention on Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights, Democracy, and the Rule of Law was adopted in Strasbourg at the annual ministerial meeting of the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers. It’s the first international treaty adopted on artificial intelligence.

Recognizing the need for a comprehensive regulatory framework, the Council of Europe has introduced the Framework Convention on Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights, Democracy, and the Rule of Law. This landmark initiative aims to ensure that AI technologies are developed and deployed in a manner that respects and promotes fundamental human values.

Introduction to the Framework Convention

The Framework Convention represents a pioneering effort to address the multifaceted challenges addressed by AI. It establishes a set of legal principles and guidelines designed to safeguard human rights, uphold democratic values, and ensure the rule of law in the context of AI development and use. This initiative underscores the Council of Europe’s commitment to maintaining ethical standards and protecting individual rights in the face of technological advancements.

Key Principles and Objectives

Human Rights

The Council of Europe Convention emphasizes the paramount importance of human rights in the AI landscape. It mandates that AI systems must be designed and implemented in ways that respect human dignity, privacy, and non-discrimination. It also stresses the need for transparency and accountability in AI operations, ensuring that individuals have the right to understand how AI decisions affect them and challenge those decisions when necessary.


In a democracy, the Framework Convention seeks to prevent AI from undermining democratic processes. It calls for measures to combat the spread of misinformation and to protect electoral integrity. Additionally, it promotes the use of AI to enhance citizen participation and engagement in democratic governance, highlighting the potential for AI to strengthen rather than weaken democratic institutions.

Rule of Law

Ensuring the rule of law is another central tenet of the treaty. AI systems must operate within a clear legal framework, with mechanisms for oversight and redress. The Convention also advocates for the establishment of independent bodies to monitor AI applications and enforce compliance with legal standards. This aims to prevent arbitrary or biased AI-driven decisions and maintain public trust in AI technologies.

Main Obligations Covered by the Treaty

According to the available information, the Framework Convention outlines several key obligations for the member states. These obligations include:

  1. Legislative and Regulatory Measures: Member states are required to adopt legislative and regulatory measures to ensure that AI systems respect human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. This includes creating specific legal provisions to address the ethical and social impacts of AI.
  2. Risk Assessment and Management: States must implement mechanisms to assess and manage the risks associated with AI technologies. This involves conducting regular evaluations of AI systems to identify potential threats to human rights and democratic values and taking appropriate measures to mitigate these risks.
  3. Transparency and Accountability: The treaty mandates that AI systems be transparent and accountable. This includes ensuring that AI operations are understandable to users and that there are mechanisms for individuals to challenge AI-driven decisions that affect them.
  4. Data Protection and Privacy: Member states must enforce stringent data protection and privacy standards in the context of AI. This includes ensuring that AI systems handle personal data in a manner that complies with existing data protection laws and respects individuals’ privacy rights.
  5. Non-Discrimination and Fairness: The Convention requires states to ensure that AI systems do not perpetuate or exacerbate discrimination. This includes implementing measures to prevent biased outcomes and ensuring that AI applications promote fairness and equality.
  6. Public Awareness and Education: States are obligated to promote public awareness and education about AI. This involves developing educational programs to enhance understanding of AI technologies and their implications for society, as well as encouraging public engagement in discussions about AI governance.
  7. International Cooperation: The treaty emphasizes the importance of international cooperation in addressing the challenges posed by AI. Member states are encouraged to collaborate with other countries and international organizations to share best practices and develop harmonized approaches to AI governance.

Implementation and Monitoring

The Council of Europe proposes the creation of a dedicated oversight body responsible for assessing compliance with the Framework Convention’s provisions. This body will work in collaboration with national governments, civil society organizations, and the private sector to ensure that AI technologies align with the established ethical and legal standards.

Capacity Building and Education

Recognizing the need for broad-based understanding and expertise in AI ethics, the Convention also calls for initiatives to build capacity and raise awareness. This includes training programs for policymakers, technologists, and the general public to foster a deeper understanding of the ethical and legal implications of AI. Education and public engagement are seen as crucial components in cultivating a culture of ethical AI development and use.

Global Cooperation and Leadership

The Council of Europe envisions the Framework Convention as a model for global cooperation on AI governance. By setting a high standard for ethical AI, the Convention aims to influence international norms and encourage other regions to adopt similar frameworks. The Council is committed to leading by example, demonstrating that it is possible to harness the benefits of AI while safeguarding human rights, democracy, and the rule of law.


The Council of Europe Framework Convention on Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights, Democracy, and the Rule of Law marks a significant step forward in addressing the ethical and legal challenges created by AI. By establishing clear principles and robust mechanisms for oversight, the Convention aims to ensure that AI technologies contribute positively to society while upholding fundamental values. As AI continues to evolve, the Framework Convention will serve as a crucial guide for balancing innovation with the imperative to protect human rights and democratic principles. sustains the European body’s initiative towards an ethical and regulated development of Artificial Intelligence.’s mission to provide the most powerful tool ever created by mankind for the greater good of humanity aligns with the goals outlined by the Council of Europe in the adopted treaty. Each EU member state will thus need a technological mechanism for control, auditing, and ethical application of AI-generated operations, for which has already created the world’s first Blockchain of AIs. We thus find the core pillars of’s mission in the main principles and objectives initiated by the Council of Europe’s Framework Convention on Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights, Democracy, and the Rule of Law.

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